Skip to Content
Achilles tendonitis
– An extension of the calf muscles and attaches to the heel. It serves a stabilizing function and can become inflamed when subjected to excessive stress or overuse. If not treated, it can rupture with repeated overuse. The tendon does not have good blood supply or cell activity, so this injury can be slow to heal.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries
– One of the crisscrossing ligaments of the knee that help to stabilize it. Stretching or tearing of the ACL may occur when the tibia is pushed sharply forward of the femur or through torsional stress on the knee.
Anterior tibialis
– The muscle to the outside of the tibia. It works to stabilize the ankle when the foot hits the ground during the contact phase of walking, and then it pulls the foot from the ground during the swing phase. It also works to ‘lock’ the ankle, as in toe-kicking a ball, while contracted.
– can be a variety of conditions that involve damage to the joints with symptoms such as pain and swelling. Conditions include rheumatoid or osteoarthritis. The literal meaning is inflammation of a joint.
Baker’s cyst
– A cyst that forms behind the knee as a result of chronic inflammation. It causes painful swelling behind the knee that can either be drained, or go away on it’s own.
– the application of the laws of physical and mechanical principals to human movement.
Bicycle biomechanics
– The study of human motion or kinematics on the bicycle. This process is frequently performed with the bicyclist riding their bicycle on a stationary trainer.
Bike fit
– The process of fitting a person to their bicycle. The bicycle fit process should include a musculoskeletal evaluation so as to best understand the individuals capabilities as it relates to their chosen bicycle.
Bike retrofit
– The inclusion of new equipment, such as stems, saddles, and pedals, to the bicycle so as to make a best fit of the bicycle to the individual.
Bulging disc
– is more typically used as a general term that can describe various conditions of intervertebral discs. A disc bulge can occur in a healthy disc as part of normal, functional movement. The outer walls of the discs can “bulge” outside of the perimeter of the bodies of the vertebra during normal postures and movements. A disc may develop different degrees of “bulging” that can be from damage to the outer walls of the discs and may cause pain and dysfunction. However, many studies have shown that even though an MRI may show you have a disc “bulge”, it cannot always be correlated to your symptoms. Approximately 50% of people who have never had back pain have bulging discs found on MRI.
inflammation of the fluid filled sacs that cushion the joints and minimize friction. Can be caused by trauma or overuse can occur in many places such as the shoulder, hip, knee, and heel.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
– Compression of the medial nerve in the wrist caused by the ligaments being swollen or becoming thickened with scar tissue. Commonly caused by repetitive motion and overuse, such as typing at a keyboard all day long. Symptoms are tingling and numbness in the thumb and first two fingers, and difficulty griping an object.
Cervical (neck) pain
– The neck is the uppermost region of the spine and is the second most problematic area of the spine. It is composed of vertebrae and disks, and pain can be caused from pinched nerves, disc injury, sprains and strains. Pain can be the result of a specific traumatic incident, or from accumulated stress, strain, poor posture or bad body mechanics.
Chondromalacia patellae
– The degeneration in the cartilage on the underside of the patella.
Degenerative disc disease
– Degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Symptoms can be chronic low back pain that sometimes radiates to the hips, pain in the buttocks or thighs while walking; and/or sporadic tingling or weakness through the knees. Neck pain can also be a result with symptoms being referred into the upper back and/or arms.
Degenerative joint disease
– Also known as osteoarthritis (OA). These are a group of problems that involve degeneration of the joints – including the cartilage and bone. Symptoms include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, creaking, locking and sometimes inflammation. Can be caused by heredity, trauma, overuse, or age. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the US.
– occur when a joint becomes displaced as a result of sudden impact, awkward fall or severe twist. The ligaments become damaged as a result of the dislocation.
Electrical stimulation
– a treatment method that uses an electrical current flowing though patches placed on the patient’s skin. This modality can be used for pain relief or for neuromuscular re-education.
– refers to the four limbs on your body, arms and legs.
– The joints of the vertebra. They are pairs of bony projections that connect the rear sections of each vertebra to form a series of interlocking joints.
Femoral condyle
– The two rounded ends of the femur – medial and lateral. Between the two, a groove is formed for where the patella moves through.
– Also known as the thigh bone. It runs from the hip to the knee and is one of the strongest bones in the body, supporting up to 30 times the body weight.
– A chronic condition characterized by chronic and widespread soft tissue pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and a heightened and painful response to pressure.
– The ability of muscles, tendons and ligaments to elongate. These tissues that remain mobile are less susceptible to injury. As we age, it is especially important to strengthen and stretch, so we can handle the stresses of everyday life on our bodies.
– A medical condition where there is a break in the bone. Can be the result of high force impact or stress, or can occur because of medical conditions such as osteoporosis or cancer. A closed fracture is where the skin is not broken, and an open fracture is where the skin is open and exposed to the bone fracture. Simple fractures are fractures that only occur along one line, splitting the bone into two pieces, while multi-fragmentary fractures, known as comminuted fractures, involve the bone splitting into multiple pieces.
Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis)
– a condition characterized by pain and limited range of movement in the shoulder. It can result from trauma or arise spontaneously without knowing the cause. It usually goes through stages of freezing (can last up to 9 months), frozen (lasts up to 9 months) and thawing (can last up to 26 months. Medical intervention is usually necessary for a return of normal movement.
– Gait is how you move your limbs, and can apply to walking, running, or any other sport-specific activity. Your gait can affect your body in many different ways and can be the cause of problems. Likewise, problems in your body may lead to changes in your gait that can affect your performance.
Gait analysis
– Because your gait can affect the functioning of your body, looking at how you walk or run can be important to diagnose and treat problems. This is done putting you on a treadmill and watching your specific movement patterns and examining what biomechanical issues may be contributing to your dysfunction or pain. Recommendations are made for fine-tuning the details of your gait so you can function at your optimal level.
Greater trochanteric bursitis
– The greater trochanter is part of the femur. It is the bump found on the outer side of the upper leg just below the hip joint. The bursea (fluid filled sac) that covers it can become inflamed with over use or trauma. Read more about bursitis
Herniated disc
– a herniation of a disc occurs when the fluid-like inner nucleus of the disc begins to protrude through the outer wall. There are different degrees of herniation including protrusions, extrusions, and sequestrations. Protrusions do not reach the outer edges and are still contained within the disc. An extrusion reaches the outer-most edge of the disc and is no longer contained, but the entire nucleus is still attached. A sequestration is when there are fragments of the nucleus that have broken free and are outside of the main body. A herniation is not always correlated to a person’s symptoms, since a large percentage of people have been shown to have herniations but do not have pain. It has also been shown that people with herniations and pain may recover from the pain, but their herniations remain.
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS)
– The iliotibial band (ITB) runs along the outside of the leg from the hip to the knee. ITBS is a condition caused by repeated rubbing of the IT Band against the bony edges of the femoral condyle. This can cause pain and irritation along the outer side of the knee. Common in cyclists and runners.
Impingement syndrome
– Occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles become inflamed and then pinched as they pass between the bones of the shoulder. Symptoms include pain, weakness and loss of movement in the shoulder. It is usually caused by repetitive overhead stress to the shoulder. If untreated, this can lead to a rotator cuff tear. It is also known as painful arc syndrome, supraspinatus syndrome, swimmer’s shoulder or thrower’s shoulder.
– Inflammation is the body’s natural response to an injury in an attempt to heal the tissue. Immediately after an injury, the body floods the injured area with white blood cells and other cells to eat up dead or dying cells so that the repair process can begin. After an acute (new) injury it is important to begin treatment early so the inflammatory stage is kept to 24-48 hours, then the next stage of healing can begin. Rest, ice, compression and elevation are important components in controlling excess inflammation and encouraging recovery. Chronic inflammation occurs when the injury has gone on for too long and the body produces a type of cell that simultaneously destroys and heals the tissue. Any tissue can become inflamed. Tendonitis is inflammation of the muscle tendon or the connective tissue sheath that surrounds it. Bursitis is the inflammation of the bursae. Arthritis is inflammation in a joint.
Intervertebral disc
– Cartilaginous joints that allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together.
Labral repair
– The labrum is the ring of cartilage within the shoulder that surrounds the shoulder socket (called the glenoid fossa) on the scapula. When the labrum tears, surgical intervention is usually required. The most common form of tear is called a SLAP tear (standing for Superior Labral Tear from Anterior to Posterior), where the damage is to the uppermost area of the labrum. This typically occurs with overhead-throwing athletes. Symptoms include a throbbing ache in the joint, difficulty sleeping because of shoulder discomfort, loss of strength, and a pain and catching feeling when applying overhead force.
Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
– Ligament that runs along the outer (lateral) side of the knee. It works with the MCL to stabilize the knee joint. Spraining the LCL is less likely as it would be caused by a blow to the inside of the knee.
Ligament sprains
– tearing of the tough bands of fibrous tissue that stabilize joints.
Medial collateral ligament (MCL)
– Ligament that runs along the inner (medial) side of the knee. It works with the LCL to stabilize the knee joint. An injury is often caused when the knee bends the wrong way when landing, or a severe blow to the outside of the knee.
– A shock-absorbing, stabilizing cartilage found in the knee. There are two meniscus in each knee, the lateral and medial menisci, which stabilize the knee during movement and disperse friction between the upper (femur and lower (tibia) bones of the leg.
Meniscus tear
– The meniscus are vulnerable to tears, usually as a result of a blow to the knee where they are pinched between the tibia and femur. Tears can occur on the inside or outside menisci, causing pain when walking or climbing stairs. The knee may also lock.
– The 5 bones making up the front half of the foot.
– A general term used to describe pain and tenderness in the front (metatarsal region) of the foot. It is often accompanied by corns and calluses resulting from gait changes. Women are more likely to get it because of high-heeled shoes.
– The range of movement in joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments.
– Any method of therapy that involves therapeutic treatment which can help strengthen, relax, and heal muscles. These include exercise, manual therapy, and physical agents like hot and cold packs, ultrasound, and electrical stimulation.
Morton’s neuroma
– a nerve that has become enlarged usually due to compression between two metatarsal bones in the foot. It leads to inflammation, sharp pain and numbness in the ball of the foot and toes, especially when bearing weight. There are many causes (high heels, overpronation, arthritis) and it often runs in families.
Motion analysis
– Careful observation of specific movement patterns and examination of what biomechanical issues may be contributing to dysfunction or pain. This can be done with walking, running, cycling, throwing, or other movements that can be observed in a controlled environment. Recommendations are made for fine-tuning the movement so function can occur at the optimal level.
Muscle inflammation
– A cellular and chemical response to excessive or repeated stress over long periods of time. This can lead to changes within the muscles that may be obvious to the touch and painful.
Muscle spasm
– a sudden and involuntary contraction of a muscle tissue often caused by fatigue or dehydration.
Muscular strain
– Occurs when a muscle has been overstretched or overexerted and has microscopic tearing. If the tearing is more severe, it is called a muscle tear. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, discoloration and bruising.
Muscle tears
– A sever tear in the muscle caused by overstretching or overexerting. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, discoloration and bruising.
Muscle tightness
– usually minor and short term achiness in response to heavy activity.
Musculoskeletal system
– Made up of the body’s bones, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints and other connective tissues. It provides form, stability, and movement to the body. When assessing physical problems, the musculoskeletal system is looked at in whole, as the entire system works as a unit.
Nerve entrapments
– when a nerve is encroached upon or restricted by surrounding structures. This can happen anywhere along the path of the nerve, from the spine to a distant extremity. Symptoms may include weakness, pain, or paresthesias like numbness, tingling, or pins and needles sensations.
Inflammation of a nerve or general inflammation of the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms depend on which nerves are involved, but may include pain, a feeling of pins-and-needles, loss of movement or reflexes, and numbness.
Osteoarthritis (OA)
– also known as degenerative joint disease (DJD). A group of problems that involve degeneration of the joints – including the cartilage and bone. Symptoms include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, creaking, locking and sometimes inflammation. OA can be caused by heredity, trauma, overuse, or age.
– a disease of the bone which causes the bones to become weak and brittle. This in turn increases the risk of fractures. It is most common in women after menopause, but can occur in anyone with hormonal disorders and other chronic diseases.
– The kneecap, which serves to cover and protect the knee joint.
Patellofemoral joint
– A joint that links the femur to the patella.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
– Dysfunctions of the patella and the patellofemoral joint. It is caused by improper tracking of the patella during bending and straightening of the knee.
Patellar tendon
– Links the patella to the tibia.
Plantar fasciitis
– The plantar fascia is thick band of connective tissue in the arch of the foot, which connects the heel to the toes. Under the foot near the heel, it can become inflamed, suffer microscopic tearing, and eventually tear away from the heel bone. It can also be caused by a heel spur (a boney growth on the heel bone). It tends to affect runners, people with flat feet, and people who are overweight.
Power profiling
– Power profiling is done using the Racermate Computrainer. It guides you through a demanding cycling test and tracks your heart rate and wattage as the test progresses. The data gained from this test can be used to identify your “training zones” to be used in your workouts to help improve fitness. The test can be repeated throughout a training cycle to show clear and measurable improvement in fitness & power gains. Measuring power provides an objective measure of intensity and training load so that training can be designed to be detailed and specific- maximizing the value of your workouts and your results.
Rotator cuff tear
– Tears in one of more of the four tendons of the rotator cuff muscles. Can be caused by repetitive overhead stress to the shoulder, or normal degeneration with age. Symptoms include pain when arm is raised, muscle weakness, and decreased ability to use the arm.
“Runner’s knee”
– A general term for pain at the front of the knee. It can be from almost any cause, but typically is the result of acute injury to the patella or from chronic friction between the patella and the groove in the femur through which it passes during motion of the knee (femoral condyle).
– Irritation of the sciatic nerve, which often comes with back pain. It can send shooting pain into the hip, buttock or leg. It often comes on quickly and affects only one side of the body.
Shin Splints
– This is a general term used for pain in the shins. The medical term is medial tibial stress syndrome. It is usually caused by running or jumping, which can cause to overuse of the muscle. Untreated in can lead to a stress fracture of the tibia. Another cause can be compartment syndrome (CCS), which is a serious problem where swelling within the shin-area reduces blood flow, causing nerve damage and muscle deterioration. CCS requires medical attention.
– Occurs when the ligaments suffer microtrauma, are overstretched or torn. Can be produced by trauma, overuse, or poor body mechanics.
– Boney growths that usually appear in joints. Can be caused by biomechanical instability, aging, degeneration and disease.
Stress Fracture
– An incomplete fracture of a bone caused by repeated stress like running and ballet dancing. They can be only a hairline fracture and are difficult to detect even with an x-ray. Because of this they are easy to confuse with muscle strain, tendinitis or bursitis.
– Tendons are fibrous cords of tissue that attach muscles to bones. They can become inflamed when subjected to excessive stress or overuse, considerably impeding their normal gliding motions. Because tendons lack the same pain nerve endings as other structures, you might not feel any pain in the tendon until the surrounding tissues of the joint or bursa also become inflamed.
– Also called the shinbone. It is located below the knee and connects the knee with the ankle bones. It is the strongest bone in the body as it bears the body’s weight. It is also the second largest bone in the body.
Tommy John Surgery
– Also known as ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) repair. It’s a surgical reconstruction of the elbow ligament inside the elbow joint. Often torn in baseball pitchers.
– Ultrasound machines use high and low frequency sound waves on an injured area for deep tissue and muscle warming. This causes the tissue to relax and also increases circulation to aid in healing. It can also be used to decrease inflammation.
– Vertebrae are the individual bones in the flexible column in the back. The vertebral column encases and protects the spinal cord, which runs from the base of the head down to the pelvis.
– Used to describe a combination of problems resulting from high-speed back-and-forth movement of the neck. It may cause severe muscle strain or tears, muscle spasm, ligament sprain and/or herniated disc.